Category Archives: news

Caribbean Trade & Development Digest – March 3-9, 2019

Welcome to the Caribbean Trade & Development Digest for the week of March 3-9, 2019! We are happy to bring you the major trade and development headlines and analysis from across the Caribbean Region and the world from the past week.

REGIONAL

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines increases export of livestock in 2019

OECS: SVG is known internationally for it’s beautiful chain of islands, but is also taking the Caricom region by storm, as the island witnesses significant increases in fish and livestock exports. Read more 

Renewed Calls To Do More To Protect Conch

Tribune242: There are renewed calls for conch protection measures from environmentalists, including banning the exportation of conch meat and ramping up efforts to tackle the “scourge” of poaching. Read more 

US to allow lawsuits against Cuban firms, foreign businesses excluded for now

CNN: US citizens and companies with claims to Cuban property will soon be allowed to sue Cuban entities, according to a senior State Department official. But foreign businesses operating on the island will be excluded from any lawsuits under the decision to partially suspend Title III of the Libertad Act. Read more

Guadeloupe to accede to associate membership of OECS at Opening Ceremony for Special Meeting of OECS Authority on March 14, 2019

OECS: The OECS Authority is scheduled to meet in special session in Guadeloupe on 14-15 March 2019 at which time Guadeloupe will be admitted as an associate member of the Organisation. Read more 

National Puerto Rican Chamber of Commerce among entities pushing for passage of North American trade agreement.

Caribbean Business: The Pass USMCA Coalition, an alliance advocating for the passage of the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, welcomed the National Association of Manufacturers, Domino’s Pizza, Dow, and the National Puerto Rican Chamber of Commerce as its newest members. Read more 

Export development workshop held today in Corozal

Breaking Belize News: The Ministry of Investment, Trade, and Commerce announced that as part of a major deliverable under this consultancy, it is hosting a Validation Workshop of a “Draft Regional Economic Development Master Plan for Corozal” that looks at two main components under the consultancy: I. Free Zone review and repurposing and II. The preparation of an Economic Development Master Plan for the Corozal Region. Read more 

Barbados dismisses claims that island could suffer as a result of CSME requirement

TV6: Barbados has dismissed as “propaganda”, claims that the island could suffer a social fallout as a result of the implementation of the Protocol of Contingent Rights that allows for spouses, young children and dependent parents of skilled Caribbean Community (CARICOM) nationals to reside here. Read more 

All CSME Member States Sign on to Contingent Rights Protocol

Caribbean360: Member States that are participating in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) have all signed on to the Protocol on Contingent Rights and most of them are prepared to immediately begin provisional application of the Protocol. Read more

Caricom grants deferral to two member countries on freedom of movement

Jamaica Observer: Two Caribbean Community (Caricom) countries have been granted a five-year deferral on the freedom of movement of Caribbean nationals under the Caricom Single Market and Economy (CSME) that allows for the free movement of goods, skills, labour and services across the 15-member grouping, Trinidad and Tobago Prime Minister Dr Keith Rowley has said. Read more 

PROCOMER Will Promote Export Competencies in Businessmen of the Caribbean Region

Costa Rica News: With the objective of developing export capacities for entrepreneurs in the agricultural, food, and logistics services sectors, the Office of the Costa Rican Foreign Trade Promotor (PROCOMER) in the Huetar Caribe region prepares the 5th edition of the Caribbean Business Meeting. It will take place on March 20th and 21st, 2019, starting at 8:00 am, at the EARTH University of Guácimo. Read more 

Oil import bill on the increase 

Barbados Advocate: AFTER declines in recent years, Barbados’ oil import bill is back up in the air.This increasingly high bill of more than $700 million last year was one of the challenges which continued to confront the Barbados economy in 2018. Read more 

INTERNATIONAL

The Kiwi leading the fight to fix the WTO

Newsroom: With a critical component of the international trading system at risk of collapse, a New Zealander has been tasked with helping to avert crisis. Sam Sachdeva speaks to David Walker about the task ahead of him. Read more

Malaysia says EU palm oil curbs lack scientific proof, breach WTO rules

Reuters: A European Union proposal to limit the use of palm oil lacks comprehensive scientific evidence and breaches global trade rules, Malaysia’s marketing agency for the edible oil said on Friday. Read more 

Kenya negotiating AGOA extension despite low exports

The Star: The government is negotiating for a post Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) initiative to grow exports to US. AGOA was enacted in May 2000 and now has seven years to 2025 after its renewal, under which the country is to export duty-free products. Read more 

Americans will need a visa to visit 22 countries in Europe starting in 2021

Insider: In two years, Americans will need to apply for something called ETIAS (European Travel Information and Authorization System) in order to enter the continent. The European Commission says the new visas will be enforced as an effort to upgrade international security, effective January 1, 2021. Read more 

Liam Fox: I fear Brexit may never happen

BBC: A cabinet Brexiteer has voiced fears that Remain supporters in parliament will seek to overturn the referendum result over the next week. Liam Fox told BBC Newsnight that a large number of MPs want to keep the UK “locked in the EU”, adding there needs to be an end to the “self-induced pessimism” which is denying the opportunities offered by Brexit. Read more 

UK and South Africa to co-lead initiative on digital trade, aiming to boost Commonwealth trade to $2tn

UK Government: The Commonwealth initiative will seek to increase prosperity in least developed and developing countries through digital trade. Read more 

Malmström calls for renewed transatlantic cooperation on trade

EU: EU Trade Commissioner Cecilia Malmström appealed to the US not to stray from the international trade order and instead work with Europe to face the challenges of the modern global economy, including China. Updating the World Trade Organisation (WTO) should be at the heart of this rejuvenated reform effort, she argued. Read more 

Trade agreement between the EU and the Republic of Korea shown to have increased EU exports by 76%

EU: A European Commission evaluation shows that the trade agreement between the EU and Korea has been effective in making trade and investment easier, simpler and less costly. This in turn increased trade in both goods and services between the two sides, contributing to jobs, growth and more consumer choice. Read more 

Foreign Investment Screening: new European framework to enter into force in April 2019

EU: The Council of the EU today approved a new framework to screen foreign direct investments coming into the European Union, thus concluding the legislative process on this proposal. Read more 

China’s foreign investment law to usher in new chapter of opening up

ECNS: With a new draft foreign investment law submitted to national lawmakers for a third reading, China is a big step closer to adopting a unified “fundamental law” that will better protect foreign investors and start a new chapter for its opening up. Read more 

Mercosur hopes to become main food supplier of ASEAN

Saigon Online: The South American trade bloc Mercosur hopes to become a main food supplier of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in the next 50 years, according to President of the Mercosur-ASEAN Chamber of Commerce Rodolfo Caffaro. Read more 

Trade barriers stall Asean integration, say experts

The Nation: ASEAN integration is “not going anywhere” if trade regulations between Asean countries are not reformed, a recent forum heard. Read more 

In Blow to Trump, America’s Trade Deficit in Goods Hits Record $891 Billion

New York Times: America’s trade deficit in goods with the rest of the world rose to its highest level in history last year as the United States imported a record number of products, including from China, widening the deficit to $891.3 billion and delivering a setback to President Trump’s goal of narrowing that gap. Read more

Europe Trade Czar Warns of ‘Tariffs on Day 1’ After Hard Brexit

Bloomberg: The European Union’s top trade official warned that the U.K.’s impending exit from the bloc risks being “chaotic’’ with some of the EU’s other member states still not prepared for the practical realities of a no-deal Brexit that may be just three weeks away. Read more 

Kenya bank to open office in China to facilitate Sino-Africa trade

Business Report: Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB), a regional financial institution, plans to open a representative office in China in order to lower cost of Sino-Africa trade, officials said Wednesday. Read more 

Brexit: Will it affect the Kenyan flower trade?

BBC: As Britain prepares to leave the European Union, workers in Kenya’s flower industry are closely monitoring developments. Read more

EU trade chief says no support in Europe for US trade deal that includes agriculture

Independent (Ireland): The European Union will not support a comprehensive trade deal with the United States that includes agriculture, the EU’s top trade negotiator said on Thursday, so she is working toward a narrower deal focused on industrial goods and automobiles. Read more 

A key measure of global trade just had its biggest tumble since 2015

Business Insider: Air freight has been weakening since mid-2018 due to “protectionist measures and trade tensions,” according to the International Air Transport Association director general and CEO. Read more 

Venezuelan Diaspora May Number 8 Million by Next Year, Group Says

Bloomberg: More than 3.4 million Venezuelans have already fled in the most severe migration crisis in the world after Syria, the study found. This diaspora will swell to 5.4 million by the end of this year, and to 7.5 million to 8.2 million by the end of 2020, according to the OAS. Read more 

Ports That Boomed on China May Never Be the Same as Trade Shifts

Bloomberg: An industry that saw dramatic growth in the decade before Donald Trump took office is now concerned his administration’s trade tussle with China, and the lack of a deal with Japan, will cut future growth short. Read more 

Big Brexit vote: What do I need to know?

BBC: On Tuesday MPs will pass their verdict on Prime Minister Theresa May’s plan to take Britain out of the European Union on 29 March. Here is what you need to know about the vote. Read more 

China Export Slump Adds to Concerns Over Weakening Global Growth

Bloomberg: China’s exports slumped in February as seasonal factory shutdowns and continued uncertainty from the trade war combined to drag on shipments, adding to concerns over a weakening global economy. Read more

US to Suspend India’s Preferential Tariff Status

Times of India: The US decision to withdraw GSP benefits from India will not have a significant impact on Indian exports to US, says top official. Read more 

India, Australia locked in sugar trade dispute at WTO

Livemint: India has to enter into consultations and answer all the specific issues within 30 days after Australia told the World Trade Organization (WTO) that the minimum support prices (MSP) and export subsidies provided to sugarcane and sugar producers by the Narendra Modi government and several state governments violate global trade rules. Read more

US-Mexico-Canada trade deal is ‘crucial’ for future negotiations and needs to get approved: GOP congressman

CNBC: The trade deal between the United States, Canada and Mexico is crucial for future trade agreements and needs to be “put on the books,” Rep. Tom Reed, R-N.Y., told CNBC on Thursday. Read more 

Peru Moves to Ratify Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement in March

Bloomberg Tax: Peru expects to ratify an 11-nation Asia-Pacific trade agreement in March, slightly more than a year after it was signed. Read more

WTO NEWS

Trade and gender training, new research and EIF initiative announced on Women’s Day at WTO

Director-General Roberto Azevêdo announced new efforts for women’s economic empowerment through trade, including a training module and new research on trade, gender and the environment, at an event at the WTO celebrating International Women’s Day on 8 March 2019. Read more 

“Gender issues are central to who we are,” says DG Azevêdo on Women’s Day

At an event at the WTO celebrating International Women’s Day on 8 March 2019, Director-General Roberto Azevêdo reviewed the organization’s current work in trade and gender, and talked about future work and initiatives. “Gender issues are central to who we are as an organization,” he said in opening the event. Read more

Brazil, Australia initiate WTO dispute complaints against Indian sugar subsidies

Brazil and Australia have requested WTO dispute consultations with India regarding domestic support measures and alleged export subsidies provided by India to producers of sugarcane and sugar. The requests were circulated to WTO members on 5 and 7 March. Read more 

Trade Policy Review: Ecuador

The third review of the trade policies and practices of Ecuador takes place on 5 and 7 March 2019. The basis for the review is a report by the WTO Secretariat and a report by the Government of Ecuador. Read more 

South Africa launches safeguard investigation on threaded fasteners of iron or steel

On 4 March 2019, South Africa notified the WTO’s Committee on Safeguards that it initiated on 1 March 2019 a safeguard investigation on threaded fasteners of iron or steel. Read more 

DG Azevêdo urges open and inclusive discussions on investment facilitation

Speaking at a meeting of the Structured Discussions On Investment Facilitation for Development on 4 March, WTO Director-General Roberto Azevêdo welcomed the progress made in the talks. He said participants have proceeded in an open and transparent manner and urged them to keep working to inform and interact with the full membership. Read more 

NEW ON THE CTLD BLOG

In commemoration of International Women’s Day 2019, I co-authored an article with Dr. Jan Yves Remy, Deputy Director of the University of the West Indies’ Shridath Ramphal Centre for International Trade Law, Policy & Services, discussing the importance of accelerating gender mainstreaming in CARICOM trade policies in order to foster inclusive development. Have a read here: Accelerating Gender Mainstreaming in CARICOM Trade Policy

Also feel free to take a look at my other commentary this week: CARICOM Protocol on Contingent Rights: An important Step to CSME Consolidation

The Caribbean Trade & Development Digest is a weekly trade news digest published by the Caribbean Trade Law & Development Blog. Liked this issue? To read past issues, please visit here. To receive these mailings directly to your inbox, please follow our blog.

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Caribbean Trade & Development Digest – January 27 – February 2, 2019

Welcome to the Caribbean Trade & Development Digest for the week of January 27 – February 2, 2019! We are happy to bring you the major trade and development headlines and analysis from across the Caribbean Region and the world from the past week.

THIS WEEK’S HIGHLIGHTS

On the Brexit front, UK Prime Minister Theresa May won support from British MPs for a renegotiation of the Draft Withdrawal Agreement, in particular the removal of the ‘Irish Backstop’, the controversial ‘insurance policy’ to avoid a hard border between the Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland in the event that the UK and EU are unable to reach a trade deal within the transition period.

However, the EU, including the Republic of Ireland, remains adamant that the current draft Withdrawal Agreement is not up for renegotiation and that the backstop cannot be removed. The UK is due to leave the EU on March 29, 2019.

Another major trade policy development is that the EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement has come into force. Additionally, the latest round of trade talks between the US and China have been hailed as a success.

Regionally, some CARICOM leaders initiated a visit to the United Nations (UN) on the situation in Venezuela.

REGIONAL

$10m Investor: We Can Defeat WTO ‘Concerns’

The Bahamas Tribune: A $10m poultry farming investor yesterday expressed confidence that The Bahamas could follow Jamaica’s self-sufficiency lead despite its “concerns” over WTO’s potential impact. Read more 

JMEA head cites one-sided trading conditions affecting Jamaica

LoopJamaica: President of the Jamaica Manufacturers and Exporters’ A’ssociation (JMEA), Metry Seaga, has described the favourable trade conditions that Jamaica extends to its overseas trading partners as being one-sided, saying that too often the same treatment is not returned to the country’s manufacturers and exporters. Read more 

Port Operator KFTL Boasts Record Container Moves In A Day

Jamaica Gleaner: Kingston Freeport Terminal Limited, KFTL, a subsidiary of the French-based shipping company CMA CGM, said that on January 24 it recorded the best performance ever in the history of the port of Kingston in terms of container moves. Read more 

Statistical Institute of Belize: Belizeans paid an average of 30 cents more for goods and services in 2018

Breaking Belize News: For the year 2018, Belizeans paid an average of 30 cents more for goods and services, while for the month of December specifically, consumer prices were about 10 cents less when compared to the year before. Read more 

Statement on second day of visit to the UN by Delegation of CARICOM Member States

CARICOM: On Tuesday, 30 January 2019, the delegation of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) comprising Dr the Hon. Timothy Harris, Prime Minister of S.Kitts and Nevis (Chairman of CARICOM) and Dr the Hon. Keith Rowley, Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, the Hon. Peter David, Foreign Minister of Grenada, H.E. Irwin LaRocque, CARICOM Secretary-General, as well as the Permanent Representatives of these countries continued its engagements at the United Nations and at the Trinidad and Tobago Permanent Mission in New York on the situation in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and its implications for the Community. Read more 

Belize exports first shipment of crude soybean oil to Jamaica

LoveFM: Belize has made its first shipment of crude soybean oil to Jamaica. The five containers were exported last week and were supplied by Bel-Car Exports and Imports located in Spanish Lookout, Cayo District and Northern Grains Cooperative located in Blue Creek, Orange Walk District. Read more 

CARICOM Leaders To Meet With UN Secretary General On Venezuela

Jamaica Gleaner: Caribbean Community (CARICOM) leaders are to meet with the United Nations Secretary General Antonio Guterres on Monday to discuss the ongoing political situation in Venezuela where the government of President Nicolas Maduro is under international pressure to step down. Read more 

Barbados hosting EU funded meetings

TV6: Barbados is hosting a two-day consultation aimed at continuing the development of a framework for an effective platform for structured and continuous dialogue between the Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM) and French Caribbean Outermost Regions (FCORs) and British and Dutch Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs). Read moreRead more

WTO lacks clout on dispute rulings

Bahamas Tribune: The failure to enforce its rulings on trade disputes is among the “biggest criticisms” that can be levelled against the World Trade Organisation (WTO), a Bahamian arbitrator has charged. Read more 

INTERNATIONAL

1-in-3 UK firms have relocation plans due to Brexit

Euractiv: Brexit has prompted almost a third of British companies to move some operations abroad or at least consider it, a survey from an employers group showed on Friday (1 February). Read more 

UAE initiates WTO proceedings against Qatar

Gulf News: The UAE Government announced on Tuesday that it has initiated World Trade Organisation, WTO, dispute-settlement proceedings against Qatar following its ban of the sale of UAE products in Qatari markets. Read more 

China, U.S. make important progress in trade talks, paving way for further consultations

Xinhua: Negotiators from China and the United States have made important progress in the latest round of high-level talks to resolve their economic and trade frictions, laying foundation for further consultations, according to the visiting Chinese delegation. Read more 

Is WTO Article 24 the antidote to a No Deal Brexit? Euronews Answers

Euronews: Nigel Farage, one of the UK’s leading proponents of a ‘hard Brexit’ told Euronews yesterday that the negative impacts of Britain leaving the EU without a deal could be eliminated by the use of “Article 24 of the World Trade Organisation (WTO)”. Read more 

Trump sends Congress list of planned USMCA trade policy changes

Washington Examiner: The Trump administration formally gave Congress a list of its proposed changes to trade policy, requests that will put the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement on trade into effect. Read more 

WTO chief is in denial over climate impact of trade 

Climate Change News: When the head of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) says trade does not impact the environment, we should all be worried. Read more 

US, China may cross swords on e-commerce at WTO

VoA: China has given up its long-held resistance to the World Trade Organization’s push for global standards for the $27 trillion e-commerce market. Some analysts say this is a direct result of the trade war with the United States, which is forcing China to seek wider cooperation with trading countries. Read more

Sturgeon to visit US and Canada for talks on trade links

BBC: First Minister Nicola Sturgeon is to visit the US and Canada next week. The trip is planned in a bid to build stronger trade links between Scotland and North America. Read more

Japan-EU free trade deal takes effect

NHK: A comprehensive free trade deal between Japan and the European Union has come into force. The pact will eventually remove tariffs on more than 90 percent of imports from both sides and liberalize rules in a broad spectrum of fields. Read more

Brexit: MPs back May’s bid to change deal

BBC: MPs have backed seeking “alternative arrangements” to replace the Irish backstop in Theresa May’s Brexit plan. Read more 

Safeguards in free trade agreements: Council adopts horizontal framework for bilateral measures

EU: The EU will soon have in place an overall framework for ensuring consistency of safeguard measures included in free trade agreements. The Council today adopted a regulation streamlining the inclusion of safeguard measures in trade agreements so that they are applied effectively and consistently across the board.  Read more

Iraq, Jordan sign free trade agreement

Middle East Monitor: Jordan has reached a new agreement on free trade with Iraq, the country’s Deputy Prime Minister, Rajai Muasher, said yesterday. Read more 

UK cannot simply trade on WTO terms after no-deal Brexit, say experts

The Guardian: The UK will be unable to have frictionless, tariff-free trade under World Trade Organization rules for up to seven years in the event of a no-deal Brexit, according to two leading European Union law specialists. Read more 

WTO Launches Investigation Into Trump’s China Tariffs, Official Says

Bloomberg: The World Trade Organization launched an investigation into President Donald Trump’s tariffs on $250 billion of Chinese goods, ratcheting up tensions as the two nations are set to begin a new round of trade talks, according to an official with knowledge of the probe. Read more 

EU to fight US tariffs on Spanish olives at WTO

Deutsche Welle: The European Comission will back Spain’s fight to defend its olive exporters, who were hit by Donald Trump’s tariffs in June 2018. Madrid considers the punitive measure to be “an evident prejudice” on olive producers. Read more 

China accuses US of a ‘blatant breach’ of trade policy in WTO meeting

CNBC: Chinese representatives met with the World Trade Organization on Monday to begin the process of legally challenging United States tariffs on China’s exports, Reuters reported, citing a transcript of the meeting’s discussion. Read more 

WTO NEWS

United Arab Emirates requests consultations with Qatar on goods restrictions

WTO: The United Arab Emirates has requested WTO dispute consultations with Qatar regarding certain measures restricting the import, distribution and sale of goods in Qatar from the UAE (DS576). The request was circulated to WTO members on 31 January. Read more

European Union initiates WTO dispute proceedings against US olive duties

WTO: The European Union has requested WTO dispute consultations with the United States concerning US anti-dumping and countervailing duties imposed on imported ripe olives from Spain. The request was circulated to WTO members on 31 January. Read more 

Panels established to rule on US, Turkish tariff measures

WTO: At a meeting of the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) on 28 January, WTO members agreed to establish a dispute panel to rule on additional duties imposed by the United States on certain imports from China. Members also agreed to establish a panel to rule on additional duties levied by Turkey on certain imports from the United States. Read more 

The Caribbean Trade & Development Digest is a weekly trade news digest published by the Caribbean Trade Law & Development Blog. Liked this issue? To read past issues, please visit here. To receive these mailings directly to your inbox, please follow our blog.

Caribbean Trade & Development Digest – December 9-16, 2018 (Final for 2018)

Welcome to the final Caribbean Trade & Development Digest for 2018! We are happy to bring you the latest trade and development news and analysis for the week of December 9-16, 2018

As this will be our last edition for 2018, we take this opportunity to thank you for your readership over the past year and to wish you and yours the very best for the season! 

THIS WEEK’S HIGHLIGHTS

At COP24, nearly 200 countries have reached an agreement on the implementing guidelines – the ‘Rulebook’ –  for the operationalization of the Paris Agreement (2015). This agreement came on Saturday night, a day after the two week UN Climate Talks were scheduled to end.

The Brexit saga continued. UK Prime Minister Theresa May postponed a scheduled vote on her draft Withdrawal Agreement with the EU in the face of fervent political opposition, survived a confidence vote and  has been thus far unable to win additional concessions from the EU to placate MPs’ fears about the Withdrawal Agreement.

See my article with Dr. Jan Yves Remy, Deputy Director of the University of the West Indies’ Shridath Ramphal Centre, analysing what these latest Brexit political headwinds mean for CARIFORUM-UK trading relations!

Below are the other major trade and development headlines from across the Caribbean region and the world for last week:

REGIONAL

Antigua-Barbuda calls on WTO to reform dispute settlement body

Caribbean News Now: Antigua and Barbuda has officially intervened in the ongoing discussions concerning the reform of the Dispute Settlement Understanding of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Read more 

Barbados Ambassador to Geneva sounds warning

CBC (Barbados): Ambassador Blackman was addressing the WTO’s General Council Meeting. He told the body Barbados continues to believe in the WTO’s rules based trading system, but the country remains concerned about the impasse in the selection process for Appellate Body members. Read more 

St Vincent becomes first OECS island to decriminalise marijuana

LoopT&T: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) has made history as the first OECS Member State to decriminalise marijuana for medical purposes and scientific research. Read more 

CARICOM to review intra-regional transportation

LoopBarbados: Come next year, the Caribbean region will see a host of new measures, including improved intra-regional transportation. Read more 

Antigua Asks For Delay In Further Free Movement, Says It Already Has Large Numbers Of CARICOM Nationals

Antigua News Room: The Government of Antigua and Barbuda says it has asked to be excluded, for now from implementing measures under Caricom which would see free movement of more classes of people. Read more

CARICOM Secretary General holds talks with Aruba on associate membership

TV6 (Trinidad): The  Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), Ambassador Irwin LaRocque  on Wednesday met with Prime Minister of Aruba Hon Evelyn Wever-Croes on Associate Membership in the 15 member regional grouping – the Caribbean Community (CARICOM)  for the Dutch Territory. Read more 

Regional Statement on the IPCC Special Report 

CARICOM Today: CARICOM ministers with responsibility for addressing climate change released a statement on the IPCC’s Special Report. Read more 

Belize accepts chairmanship of AOSIS

CARICOM: Belize’s acceptance of the chairmanship of AOSIS from the Maldives in January 2019. Belize will hold the chairmanship for two years to be followed by Antigua and Barbuda in 2021. Read more 

INTERNATIONAL

UK and Switzerland agree to transition trade agreement after Brexit

UK Government: The UK Government and the Swiss Federal Council have approved the transition of a trade agreement, allowing businesses to continue trading freely after the UK leaves the European Union. Read more 

Commission reports on trade negotiations with Australia, New Zealand and Indonesia

EU: As part of its commitment to transparency, the European Commission published today a report from the latest round of negotiations between the EU and Australia, as well as the EU’s six initial text proposals tabled during this round. Read more 

U.S. Rejects the EU’s Trade Reform Proposal, Putting WTO at Risk

Bloomberg: The U.S. rejected the European Union’s proposal to reform the World Trade Organization, dealing a blow to international efforts to bolster the Geneva-based body, which has come under attack from President Donald Trump’s administration. Read more 

EU-Japan trade agreement on track to enter into force in February 2019

EU: The European Commission welcomes today’s approval in the European Parliament of the EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement and the EU-Japan Strategic Partnership Agreement. Read more

China buys US soybeans for first time since trade war

BBC: China has bought US soybeans for the first time since the trade war between the two countries started in July. The country’s finance ministry also confirmed it would temporarily reduce tariffs on US car imports from 40% to 15%, beginning on 1 January. Read more 

Shipping costs from China to the US have more than doubled as trade war sparks a ‘bonanza’

CNBC: The price of shipping a container from China to the United States has risen dramatically in the last year due to uncertainty surrounding trade tensions between Washington and Beijing. Read more 

AEC pushes for an inclusive African Continental Free-Trade Agreement

African Review: A successful implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) agreement cannot be achieved without the “people dimension,” ensuring that the integration process does not lead to widening inequalities or exclusion, the AEC Forum observed. Read more 

Appellate Body issues report on revised US “dolphin-safe” tuna labelling measure

WTO: On 14 December the Appellate Body issued its report in the cases brought by Mexico and the United States in “United States — Measures Concerning the Importation, Marketing and Sale of Tuna and Tuna Products — Second Recourse to Article 21.5 of the DSU by Mexico” (DS381). Read more 

India appeals panel ruling in dispute with Japan over safeguard duties on steel products

WTO: India filed an appeal on 14 December concerning the WTO panel report in the case brought by Japan in “India — Certain Measures on Imports of Iron and Steel Products” (DS518). The panel report was circulated to WTO members on 6 November. Read more 

Appellate Body issues report regarding Brazil tax measures

WTO: On 13 December the Appellate Body issued its report in the cases by the European Union and Japan in “Brazil — Certain Measures Concerning Taxation and Charges” (DS472 and DS497). Read more

Trade Policy Review Body: Overview of developments in the international trading environment

WTO: Speech by WTO Director General Roberto Azevedo. Read more.

WTO-World Bank joint publication highlights need for policies to maximize trade gains for extreme poor

WTO: Trade has made a significant contribution to poverty reduction but further integration of developing countries into international markets and policies to share the gains from trade more widely will be essential for further reducing poverty and ensuring that no one is left behind, according to a joint publication by the World Bank Group and the World Trade Organization launched today (11 December). Read more 

Report shows sharp rise in the coverage of trade-restrictive measures from WTO members

WTO: The Director-General’s annual overview on trade-related developments presented to members on 11 December at a meeting of the Trade Policy Review Body (TPRB) shows a significant increase in trade coverage of trade restrictive measures by WTO members from mid-October 2017 to mid-October 2018. Read more

EU parliament approves huge free trade deal with Japan

Japan Today: The European Parliament on Wednesday approved an accord with Japan that has been dubbed the world’s biggest trade deal, covering economies that represent a third of the world’s GDP. Read more

The Caribbean Trade & Development Digest is a weekly trade news digest published by the Caribbean Trade Law & Development Blog. Liked this issue? To read past issues, please visit here. To receive these mailings directly to your inbox, please follow our blog.

Caribbean Trade and Development Digest – November 13 – 17, 2018

Welcome to the Caribbean Trade & Development Digest for the week of November 13-17, 2018! We do apologise for the delay in this week’s Caribbean Trade and Development Digest, but are happy to bring you the major trade and development headlines and analysis from across the Caribbean Region and the world from the past week.

THIS WEEK’S HIGHLIGHTS

Last week was quite a busy week in trade policy news on the regional and international fronts! There was the announcement and release of the draft Brexit withdrawal agreement between the UK and EU. The Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Summit in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, ended with no joint statement amidst disagreement between the US and China. On the regional front, the CARICOM Council for Trade and Economic Development (COTED) held its 47th meeting and released a statement  in support of the WTO.

REGIONAL

COTED Statement on WTO

CARICOM: CARICOM Trade Ministers, meeting in Georgetown, Guyana, on 15 and 16 November 2018, at the Forty-Seventh Meeting of the Council for Trade and Economic Development (COTED), re-iterated the Caribbean Community’s support for the rules-based, multilateral trading system embodied in the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Read more 

Dubai-Caribbean non-oil trade hits $273 million in 2017

Khaleej Times: The value of non-oil trade between Dubai and Caribbean countries totalled $273 million in 2017, according to new data released by the Dubai Chamber of Commerce and Industry ahead of the first UAE-Caribbean Cooperation Forum in Dubai. Read more

St Lucia set to launch import substitution programme

St Lucia Times: The Ministry of Agriculture, with the support of the government of Taiwan, will next year begin implementing an import substitution programme for a range of crops in an effort to reduce Saint Lucia’s food import bill. Read more

Guyana, EU to sign pact on forest governance

Stabroek: After around six years of engagements, Guyana and the European Union (EU) are to sign an agreement that will bolster forest governance and address issues such as illegal logging. Read more 

China eyes US$10 trillion in imports from Latin America, Caribbean

Stabroek: The Government of the People’s Republic of China is looking to import some US$10 trillion in goods and services from Latin America and the Caribbean over the next five years, China’s Ambassador to Jamaica Tian Qi has disclosed. Read more 

Advancing Single Market and Economy pivotal to CARICOM’s future – LaRocque

Stabroek: If CARICOM is to safeguard the region’s interests in the global arena and achieve the objective of improving the lives of its citizens, its most important immediate task is to advance the implementation of the Single Market and Economy (CSME), Secretary General Ambassador Irwin LaRocque says. Read more 

INTERNATIONAL

APEC summit wraps with no joint statement amid US-China discord

CNN: For the first time in its 25-year history, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit ended Sunday with its leaders failing to agree on a formal joint statement.

All 21 APEC leaders at the annual meeting in Papua New Guinea were in agreement except China, a source within the meeting told CNN. Read more
European Commission welcomes agreement on foreign investment screening framework
EU: Today the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission reached a political agreement on an EU framework for screening foreign direct investment. Read more

Japan initiates WTO dispute complaint against Korean support for shipbuilders

WTO: Japan has requested WTO dispute consultations with Korea concerning alleged subsidies provided by the Korean government to its shipbuilding industry. Japan’s request was circulated to WTO members on 13 November. Read more

WTO Members Prepare to Shift Gears in Fisheries Negotiations

ICTSD: WTO members negotiating a proposed agreement to tackle harmful fisheries subsidies held a second cluster of meetings last week as part of their September-December work programme, hearing reports about brainstorming sessions in “incubator groups” the week before and completing the streamlining of a document consolidating all existing proposals.  Read more 

Kenya Eyes High Table Seat At Inaugural Intra-Africa Trade Talks

AllAfrica: Kenya is keen to play a lead role in steering intra-Africa trade as the continent meet for the Inaugural Intra-Africa Trade Fair (IATF) in Cairo, Egypt, next month. Read more

May sticks to Brexit deal as opponents seek formal challenge

Reuters: British Prime Minister Theresa May vowed on Monday to stick to her draft European Union divorce deal as dissenting lawmakers in her own party tried to trigger a leadership challenge. Read more 

Vice president Pence pushes Japan for free trade agreement

Reuters:  U.S. Vice President Mike Pence, keeping up pressure on Japan to cut its trade surplus with the United States, said on Tuesday American goods and services too often faced barriers in Japan and a bilateral trade agreement offered the best way forward. Read more 

Singapore, China sign several agreements, including free trade agreement upgrade

ChannelNewsAsia: China and Singapore have signed a slew of agreements, including the upgrade of a bilateral free trade pact, which will allow greater market access for Singapore companies. Read more

China, Spain, Latin America: A New Growth Axis in Global Trade

World Crunch: Spain, an industralized EU member with close ties to Latin America, could profit from easing the entry of Chinese firms keen to invest in and export to the Americas. Read more

How news media can boost China-Latin America relations

Xinhua: There’s no doubt of the news media’s impact across borders and in fostering relations between countries and entire regions. Nowhere is this more true than in the relationship between China and Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC). Read more 

WTO working more closely with UK on Brexit

RTE: A senior World Trade Organization (WTO) representative has said the body is watching Brexit negotiations between the European Union and the UK “very closely”. Read more 

Trump’s protectionism might just save the WTO

The Washington Post: President Trump is right that the World Trade Organization badly needs reform.Keeping the United States within the WTO should obviously be Plan A. But it would be prudent for other members to start thinking about devising a new international trade organization minus the United States in order to avoid the “my way or the highway” blackmail that has become the American president’s signature negotiating style. Read more 

WTO members adopt roadmap for reducing technical barriers to trade

WTO: WTO members achieved a breakthrough at a 14-15 November meeting of the Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) by agreeing on a list of recommendations that aim at reducing obstacles to trade and improving implementation of the WTO’s TBT Agreement.  Read more 

Launch of WTO Data Portal

WTO: The WTO launched on Friday 16th November its new online database. The WTO Data portal brings together a wide range of statistical indicators on international trade and other WTO-related information. Read more 

US-China Discord Dominates APEC Summit

Jakarta Globe: The United States and China swapped barbs over trade, investment and regional security at an Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, or Apec, summit on Saturday, as growing fault lines among members suggested little prospect of consensus at the weekend meeting. Read more 

India to adopt new approach toward free trade agreements

Japan Times: India is planning to adopt a new strategy toward negotiating free trade agreements even as the country is engaged in talks with members of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, the proposed ASEAN-focused regional free trade area. Read more 

Egypt, Eurasian Union to start negotiating free trade agreement

Egypt Today: Egypt and the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) signed a framework document for negotiations on the free trade agreement between the two sides, as they both decided to hold the first tournament of negotiations in mid- January in Cairo. Read more 

India, Mauritius likely to sign free trade pact in January

Hindu Business Line: The proposed India-Mauritius free trade agreement,being given the final touches by negotiators this week, is likely to be signed in January during Mauritius PM Pravind Kumar Jugnauth’s India visit, a government official has said. Read more 

The Caribbean Trade & Development Digest is a weekly trade news digest published by the Caribbean Trade Law & Development Blog. Liked this issue? To read past issues, please visit here. To receive these mailings directly to your inbox, please follow our blog.

Caribbean Trade & Development Digest – September 30 – October 6, 2018

Welcome to the Caribbean Trade & Development Digest for the week of September 30 – October 6, 2018! We are happy to bring you the trade and development headlines and analysis from across the Caribbean Region and the world from the past week.

THIS WEEK’S HIGHLIGHTS

Undoubtedly, the biggest trade news of the week is that after a year of negotiations, we now have the agreed text of an updated North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), or what it is now officially called, the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA). The Agreement’s text may be found here.

On the multilateral front, the World Trade Organisation this week concluded another successful Public Forum, with this year’s theme being “Trade 2030”. During the Public Forum, the WTO also released its flagship World Trade Report 2018, which focused on the transformative impacts which new digital technologies, such as 3D printing, blockchain and the like, will have on trade, and the challenges they could also bring.

Please see further headlines below:

REGIONAL NEWS

EU Provides Funding to Develop Jamaica’s Forest Sector

Jamaica Information Service: Some 14 million Euros will be spent by the Forestry Department to implement a National Forest Management and Conservation Plan, which is a 10-year blueprint for the building of a vibrant, sustainable and climate-resilient forest sector. Read more 

New energy information portal to boost investments and improve decision-making within the Caribbean’s energy sector

St Lucia News Online: News of an impending natural gas price hike across Europe, and deepening volatility surrounding Middle Eastern Oil, has within the past week been met with a more promising refrain from a region traditionally viewed as a pawn amongst kings and rooks within the global energy sector. Read more 

Businesses equipped with tools to access the European Market

LoveFM: Beltraide aims at tackling the problem of poverty by promoting business growth.  Beltraide in collaboration with the CARIFORUM-EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) held a workshop to sensitize potential exporters as to the requirements of the European Union market. Read more 

“Belizean products have global competitiveness,” says Caribbean Export 

Breaking Belize NewsAccording to the Caribbean Export Development Agency (CEDA), Belizean businesses can hold a competitive space in the world market if greater care is taken in making businesses export ready.  Read more

Central American Agriculture Council Meeting Held in Belize 

Breaking Belize News: On Thursday, October 4, 2018, the Ministry of Agriculture in collaboration with the Central American Agriculture Council hosted a one-day National Consultation Workshop for the Central American Agriculture Council Regional Agriculture Policy.  Read more 

Mixed Bag for Caribbean tourism

Jamaica Gleaner: With marked reduction from its main source market, the United States, and only a marginal increase out of Europe, tourist arrivals into the region in the last six months has been a mixed bag. Read more 

More Value Added Products Need to be Exported to the EU, says JAMPRO head

Caribbean360: Jamaica Promotions Corporation (JAMPRO) President Diane Edwards says more value-added products need to be exported to the European Union (EU), to reverse the decline in trade with the bloc. Read more

JAMPRO Partners with EU and Caribbean Export on CARIFORUM-EU EPA Workshop

South Florida Caribbean News: The European Union (EU) in Jamaica in collaboration with the Jamaica Promotions Corporation (JAMPRO), and the Caribbean Export Development Agency (Caribbean Export) hosted a workshop on the CARIFORUM-EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) on October 2, 2018, at the Knutsford Court Hotel. Read more

INTERNATIONAL NEWS

USMCA, Trump’s new NAFTA deal, explained in 500 words

Vox: The US, Canada, and Mexico struck a new trade deal to replace NAFTA on Sunday. It’s known as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, or USMCA. Read more

WTO issues compliance panel reports regarding Colombian measures on textiles, apparel, footwear

WTO: On 5 October the WTO circulated compliance reports in the dispute “Colombia — Measures Relating to the Importation of Textiles, Apparel and Footwear — Recourse to Article 21.5 of the DSU by Panama and Recourse to Article 21.5 of the DSU by Colombia” (DS461). Read more 

Isolate Trump at WTO, says former top trade judge Bacchus

Reuters: Countries belonging to the World Trade Organization should unite against the bullying of U.S. President Donald Trump, former WTO chief judge James Bacchus said on Wednesday. Read more 

WTO sees technology adding one third to annual trade by 2030

CNBC: Technology and innovation will increase global trade by 1.8-2.0 percentage points annually until 2030, the head of the World Trade Organization wrote in a report published on Wednesday. Read more 

US says its cannot support some of the EU’s ideas on WTO reform

Euractiv: The United States gave the first hint on Thursday (4 October) of its view of attempts to reform the World Trade Organization, rejecting some proposals put forward by the European Union to resolve a crisis at the home of world trade in Geneva. Read more 

Australia questions India’s sugar subsidy bilaterally and at WTO

Economic Times: Australia has raised concerns over India’s sugar subsidy dole out and questioned how the host of financial assistance measures announced this year are within the rules of the World Trade Organisation (WTO).  Read more 

Canada agrees to join U.S. and Mexico in new trade deal to replace NAFTA, say US and Canadian officials

USA Today: Canada has agreed to join the United States and Mexico in a trade deal that will replace the North American Free Trade Agreement, U.S. and Canadian officials said Sunday night. Read more 

ACP-EU negotiations: Taking the road to prosperity together

EURACTIV: Talks on a new agreement between the ACP and the EU will only bear fruit if both parties take the road to prosperity together, writes the ACP’s chief negotiator. Read more 

EU to hit Cambodia with trade sanctions, says Myanmar may follow

Channel News Asia: The European Union told Cambodia on Friday (Oct 5) it will lose its special access to the world’s largest trading bloc, and said it was considering similar trade sanctions for Myanmar in a toughening of EU policy on human rights in Southeast Asia. Read more 

Liked this issue? To read past issues of our weekly Caribbean Trade & Development Digest, please visit here. To receive these mailings directly to your inbox, please follow our blog.

Caribbean Trade & Development Digest – September 9-15, 2018

Welcome to the Caribbean Trade & Development Digest for the week of September 9-15, 2018! We are happy to bring the trade and development headlines and analysis from across the Caribbean Region and the world from the past week.

REGIONAL

Laing appointed Bahamas’ WTO Chief Negotiator

Eyewitness News: Minister of Financial Services, Trade and Industry and Immigration Brent Symonette held a press conference on Sunday at the Campbell Maritime Centre to provide an update on the country’s current accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) Accession. Read more 

Bahamas’ Top Negotiator: ‘WTO’ won’t hurt this economy 

Tribune 242: The Bahamas’ newly-appointed chief negotiator yesterday pledged this nation “cannot join the WTO on terms that injure” its economy or any major industries. Read more 

Guyana, other Caribbean countries searching for new fuel sellers following Trinidad’s refinery closure; regional tax to be waived 

Demerara Waves: In the wake of the closure of Trinidad and Tobago’s state-owned oil refinery, Petrotrin, Guyana and several other Caribbean Community (CARICOM) member states are scrambling to buy fuel from extra-regional suppliers, Foreign Minister Carl Greenidge said Monday. Read more 

All hands on deck with Windrush

The Gleaner: Article by Jamaica Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade, the Hon. Kamina Johnson Smith, on the Jamaica Government’s approach to the ‘Windrush’ issue in the UK. Read more 

SAC issues position paper for regional integration of sugar market

The Jamaica Observer:  The Sugar Association of the Caribbean (SAC), which represents sugar producers in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), has disclosed that it issued a position paper on the regional integration of the sugar market on September 7. Read more 

Caribbean banks support CARICOM in regional integration efforts

Caribbean News Now: The Caribbean Association of Banks (CAB) has commended the Council for Finance and Planning (COFAP) for reaffirming the commitment towards the Caribbean Single Market and Economy and its significance for the regional financial sector, at the sixth special meeting of the Council on September 4, 2018, in Barbados. Read more 

INTERNATIONAL

RCEP Negotiations Reach Critical Stage – Likely to be Inked by Year-End

ASEAN Briefing: In the sixth Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) ministerial meeting held in Singapore, the negotiations for the conclusion of the proposed RCEP reached a critical stage; the top leaders from the 16-member coalition came together and pledged to endorse a package of outcomes by year-end. Read more

Trudeau sets out fall priorities, including finalising the Trans-Pacific deal as NAFTA talks continue

The Toronto Star: Canada will try to meet a Sept. 30 deadline to reach a North American free trade pact, but Prime Minister Justin Trudeau suggested Thursday the most recent timeline set by the U.S. may not be met as NAFTA talks continue. Read more 

Intrigue, impasse persist over NAFTA

Calgary Herald: With trilateral NAFTA talks having been on hiatus for most of the summer, the foreign affairs minister was in Berlin, barely one full day into a week-long diplomatic mission to Europe, when news emerged that the United States and Mexico had forged their own trade alliance in Canada’s absence. Read more

NAFTA negotiations ‘hang over heads’ of Canadian farmers, U.S. counterparts

CBC (Canada): The tough talk between Canada and the U.S. around NAFTA negotiations is having real-life consequences for those working in the industry every day.  Read more 

Canada working on WTO Reform: Report

MoneyControl: Canada is working on a project for the reform of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and aims to organise international talks on the subject next month, Canadian sources said Friday as US pressure on the body mounts. Read more

Canada-EU trade, one year on; Imports rising faster than exports

CBC (Canada): When the Canadian government talks about trade diversification, the agreement it puts in the window is its wide-ranging trade deal with the European Union, which started to take hold one year ago this week. Read more 

USTR Publishes Agreed Outcomes from US-Korea FTA Amendment and Modification Negotiations

USTR:  Today, the Office of the United States Trade Representative and Korea’s Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy published the agreed outcomes of the negotiations to amend and modify the U.S.-Korea (KORUS) Free Trade Agreement. Read more 

Japan and Vietnam urge US to rejoin Pacific trade deal

Gulf Times: Japan and Vietnam yesterday urged the United States to rejoin a sprawling Pacific trade deal, almost two years after President Donald Trump’s withdrawal dealt a major blow to what would have been the world’s largest free trade pact. Read more

Canada requests consultations with China on compliance with paper duties ruling

WTO: Canada has requested consultations with China regarding China’s alleged non-compliance with the recommendations and rulings of the Dispute Settlement Body in the dispute concerning Chinese anti-dumping duties on imports of Canadian cellulose pulp (DS483). The request was circulated to WTO members on 12 September. Read more

Azevêdo urges Commonwealth to play full part in strengthening the multilateral system

WTO: Speaking at a meeting of WTO Commonwealth members held at the WTO on 11 September, Director-General Roberto Azevêdo said the support provided by Commonwealth members for the multilateral trading system is hugely important. Read more 

Jean-Claude urges EU to offer free trade agreement to Africa

The Punch: European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker on Wednesday, urged the European Union to offer a free trade agreement to the whole of the African continent and a new investment alliance. Read more 

‘Moving into the heart of negotiations’ for Africa’s free trade agreement

RFI: The African Continental Free Trade Area agreement makes some big promises about removing barriers to trade and freeing up the flow of goods and services.  Read more 

Totally wrong! Brexit stalemate as EU says NOTHING will be agreed this week

The Sunday Express: EU officials have crushed rising hopes of a breakthrough on the question of the Irish border when leaders meet for Wednesday’s summit in Salzburg, with one dismissing the suggestion as “totally wrong”. Read more 

Can international trade agreements help to introduce labour reforms?

South China Morning Post: Labour advocates have long complained international trade agreements are driven by corporate agendas and pay little attention to the interests of working people. Read more 

Liked this issue? To read past issues of our weekly Caribbean Trade & Development Digest, please visit here. To receive these mailings directly to your inbox, please follow our blog.

WTO: Trade tensions could sabotage global trade growth momentum

Alicia Nicholls

The World Trade Organisation (WTO) has predicted that global merchandise trade growth will remain strong in 2018 and 2019, but has cautioned that this momentum is contingent on the policy choices taken by governments.

This forecast was disclosed by WTO Director General, Roberto Azevedo, in a press conference held last week. According to Mr. Azevedo, global merchandise trade grew an estimated 4.7% in 2017 and is forecast by WTO economists to grow 4.4% in 2018 and by a more modest, 4.0% in 2019.

He noted that trade volume growth in 2017 was the most robust since 2011, with Asia being responsible for much of the recovery. He noted that South and Central America and the Caribbean made a positive contribution for the first time since 2013 due to Brazil’s economic recovery. The ratio of trade growth to GDP growth will be slightly lower in 2018 at 1.4 in 2018, down from 1.5 in 2017. Commercial services trade experienced strong growth in 2017 after two years of lacklustre growth.

The escalating global trade tensions, particularly between the US and China, cast a shadow over the forecast, as Director-General Azevedo strongly cautioned that continued positive trade growth could be “quickly undermined” if Governments turned to trade restrictive policies and engaged in retaliation. Mr. Azevedo pointedly stated that “a cycle of trade retaliation is the last thing the world economy needs”, noting that trade tensions may already be impacting business confidence and investment decisions. He further warned that missteps on trade and monetary policy “could undermine economic growth and confidence”.

In an appeal to WTO Member States to resort to the rules-based system as opposed to unilateral action, Mr. Azevedo added that “pressing trade problems confronting WTO Members is best tackled through collective action”.

The full WTO press release may be viewed here.

Alicia Nicholls, B.Sc., M.Sc., LL.B., is an international trade and development consultant with a keen interest in sustainable development, international law and trade. You can also read more of her commentaries and follow her on Twitter @LicyLaw.

 

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